Smart Household Operation Considering Bi-Directional EV and ESS Utilization by Real-Time Pricing-Based DR
Paterakis, Nikolaos G.
Mendes, Tiago D. P.
Bakirtzis, Anastasios G.
Catalao, Joao P. S.
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CitationErdinc, O., Paterakis, N. G., Mendes, T. D. P., Bakirtzis, A. G., & Catalao, J. P. S. (2015). Smart Household Operation Considering Bi-Directional EV and ESS Utilization by Real-Time Pricing-Based DR. Ieee Transactions on Smart Grid, 6(3), 1281-1291. doi:10.1109/tsg.2014.2352650
As the smart grid solutions enable active consumer participation, demand response (DR) strategies have drawn much interest in the literature recently, especially for residential areas. As a new type of consumer load in the electric power system, electric vehicles (EVs) also provide different opportunities, including the capability of utilizing EVs as a storage unit via vehicle-to-home (V2H) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) options instead of peak power procurement from the grid. In this paper, as the main contribution to the literature, a collaborative evaluation of dynamic-pricing and peak power limiting-based DR strategies with a bi-directional utilization possibility for EV and energy storage system (ESS) is realized. A mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) framework-based modeling of a home energy management (HEM) structure is provided for this purpose. A distributed small-scale renewable energy generation system, the V2H and V2G capabilities of an EV together with two-way energy trading of ESS, and different DR strategies are all combined in a single HEM system for the first time in the literature. The impacts of different EV owner consumer preferences together with the availability of ESS and two-way energy trading capabilities on the reduction of total electricity prices are examined with case studies.