Kelime gruplarının Türkiye kamuoyundaki yansımaları
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Dil toplumun aynası, söz dizimi de bu aynadan yansıyan anlamlı görüntülerin cümlesidir. Dilin şekil ve muhteva özellikleri incelenerek toplumun sosyal, siyasal, kültürel vb. pek çok alandaki gelişim ve değişim şablonu çıkarılabilir. Türkiye Türkçesinin temel yapı taşlarından olan kelime grupları, biçim ve anlamları ile hem Türkçenin tarihî seyri hem de Türk toplumunun kültürel değişim ve gelişimi hakkında önemli ipuçlarını bünyesinde barındırmaktadır. Bu çalışmada yakın geçmişimizde ortaya çıkan ve halkın gündeminde yer alan iki yüz adet kelime grubu incelenmiştir. Bu kelime gruplarında siyasal içerikli olanlar ile tamlama biçimindekilerin çoğunlukta olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Şekil yapısı bakımından bu kalıpların büyük çoğunluğunun (%84) iki kelimeden oluştuğu, üç kelimelilerin %12,5 oranında, dört kelimelilerin ise sadece dört adet (%2) olduğu, beş ve daha yukarı sayıda kelime grubunun bulunmadığı; bu durumun, dilin ekonomik tasarruf kuralı gereği az malzemeyle çok iş yapma eğiliminden kaynaklandığı düşünülmektedir. İncelenen kelime gruplarının %52'sinde ilk kelimenin "kök" olduğu, diğerlerinin de çok karmaşık gövdelerden meydana gelmediği, sadece %3,5'inin kısaltmalardan oluştuğu; bu durumun Türkçe konuşanların büyük çoğunluğunun basit ifade tarzını benimsemesi, karmaşık ve dolambaçlı söylemlere pek itibar etmemesinden kaynaklandığı sonucuna varılmıştır. İnceleme neticesinde; günümüz Türkiye Türkçesinde isim ve sıfat tamlaması şeklindeki yapıların etkin bir biçimde işletildiği, iki kelimeden oluşan kelime gruplarına itibar edildiği ve az kelimeyle çok şey ifade etme eğiliminin devam ettirildiği değerlendirilmektedirLanguage is the mirror of society; and syntax is the sentence of meaningful images reflecting from this mirror. By examining the form and scope of language, it is possible to determine a community’ssocial, political and cultural development and change template. Scanning daily newspapers of the lastfew years and examiningthe new word groups entered our family and business environmentsthrough television help usevaluate the improvement process of language and changing direction of society. We totally collected two hundred remarkable word groups for this study. We tried to collect the word groups that affect Turkish society’s socio-cultural structure with the aim of determiningthe effect of language onsociety. We categorizedthese word groupsaccording to their form and content. We tried to identify what the structure types and the included messages mean for linguistics andwhat thisphraseology brings alongin terms of the priorities of the society. Phrases are the fundamentals of the Turkish language in Turkey. They carry the traces of both theTurkish language history and the cultural development and change of Turkish society. In this study, we examined 200 recent popular phrases. Most of them were identified to be a political phrase or a compound noun. When the example phrases are set in type in order of frequency of use by their first letter, ‘K’ is in the first line with 21 (10,5?) times of its amount of use. It is sequentiallyfollowed by the other lettersaccording to their amount of uses as D:19, S:17, A:16, T:16, B:15, Y:11, M:11, P:10, İ:9, G:7, E:6, Ç:6, H:6, I:3, O:3, U:3, C:3, F:3, R:3, V:3, Ö:1, Ü:1, Ş:1, W:1, Z:1.Four of the word groups begin with numbers. It was observed that the frequently used vocals and consonantsin the beginning of Turkishwords are also frequently used in these phrases. Most of these phrases (84 %) were made up with two words, 12.5 % with three words, and only four (2 %) of these phrases were made up of four words. There were no phrases made up with five or six words. This can be attributed to the tendency towards achieving more with less in accordance with the economy principle of language. The first word was the “root” in 52 % of the phrases that were examined, and the others had no complex stems; 3.5 % of them were acronyms. This is likely a consequence of the fact that most of the Turkish speakers use simple expressions and avoid complex and indirect ones. The results of the study have demonstrated that the compound nouns are used effectively in modern Turkish, and that two-word compound nouns are preferred generally. Finally, there is a trend towards meaning more with fewer words.The group of the words starting with a vowel comprises the 21 ? of the overalltwo hundred word groups we analyzed, 77% of the words start with a consonant and 2 % with a number. 1,5 ? of the word groups are compound words written asa singleword. The groups that are composed oftwo words constitute 84 ?; the groupsthat are made up of a number and a word,of a number and two words, and of one abbreviation and two wordseachconstitute1? of the overall groups. The groups made up with an abbreviation and awordconstitute 2 ? of the total. Three-word phrases are 12,5 ? of total, the four-word ones constitute 2? of it. There is no word group having five or more words. When we analyzed the word groups according to the type of their first words, we observed the proportion of uses as: Nouns 67?, adjectives 33?, adverbs 0,5? . However, we realized that pronouns, connectives, preposition and verbs are not used at all. According to the structure of their first word, the word groups are formed from radix (52?), trunk (44,5 ?) and abbreviation (3,5?). According to the type of word groups, idioms are 50?, noun phrases are 70,5?, adjective clauses are 25?. In addition, gerunds are 2?, orientation groups are 1,5?, reiterative 1?, vehicle groups are 0,5?. No other word groups are available. Most of the meaning and content conglomeratesare observed inthe political area; 149 word groups (74,5?) are established related tothis subject. According to their frequency of use and content, the other structures are sorted descending as: 11(5.5%) law, 9 (4.5%) economics, 9 (4.5%) transportation, 8 (4%) health, 3 (1.5%) military and 2 (1%) education. Of all word groups 4%have slang meaning. Conclusion: Shaping the material and spiritual culture and the psycho-social structure of society, language provides intergenerational communication and contact. The word groups are one of the basic building blocks of language, thus, they include significant hints of social change and development. 200 word groups are randomly selected from the phrases that have entered our agenda in the last decadeand been frequently used.In the light of the determinations about these groups, our results are as below: In terms of figure structure, the majority of molds (84?) include two words. The groups with three words are (12,5 ?), with four words are only four (2%). Any word groupwithfive or more words are not available. This can be attributed totendency towards achieving more with less in accordance with the economy principle of language. Depending on the type of the first word, the majority of words are nouns (67%) and adjectives (33%); it is considered that the individuals’ tendency towards naming and identification instead of business and action causes the high rate of preference for these types of words 52% of the examined word groups begin with a ‘radix’ first, and the other word groups also do not include so many complex trunks, whereas, only 3,5 % of all come from abbreviations. It is supposed that the majority of Turkish speakers internalize simple expressions and pay no attention to complex expressions,and this caused the results above. Of the word groups95,5 % are phrases (noun phrases are 70,5 ? and adjective clauses are 25%). 50% of these groups are thought to have turned into idioms. The other word groups are so few to mention. This stems from the adoption of definitions and descriptions in everyday languagemore than the review, analysis and synthesis. In terms of content and meaning, the word groups are focused on political issues mostly. The political issues and themes have mostlyenteredinto Turkishlanguage in Turkey in the recent past, and now it is (74,5%) showing that public is really concerned about politics. It is believed that the results related tolaw (5,5%), economy (4,5%), transport (4%), health (1,5%) and education (1%) display the profoundreflectionof social agendaonlanguageduring this period. New slang expressions that cannot be underestimated (4%) have entered Turkish language recently. ‘Slang is a nonstop development area in the language. With each new generation, slang takes its guard and immediately produces something new.’ (Aktunç: 2006) This situation occurs naturally as a result of new formations and is thought to bring diversity to the communication culture of the community. All studies conducted for examiningthe creation, evolutionand changeof the word groupsas the essential elements of syntaxin the historical process are thought to shed light on both the development of Turkish language and the trends of society. Althoughhistory is formed with decisions and performances, it is written by words. Words are the living witnesses of life. All the word groups that we examined above, with their wealth of connotation, are the indicators of both the power of expression in Turkish language and the depth of dreams and feelings of Turkish society.
SourceTurkish Studies (Elektronik)