Development and Transformation Dynamics of Istanbul Basin Ekspres Route
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The crisis experienced in Fordist production in 1970s led to the moving of the industrial sector out of cities, thus causing the transformation of industrial cities into service-based cities. In developed countries, urban transformation is considered as a comprehensive form of restructuring to overcome the problems of post-industrial development as well as the socio-economic and spatial failures caused by the Post-Fordist period. Due to the fact that cities continuously develop, the transformation and the reuse of abandoned industrial areas has become critical for cities. New spatial structuring efforts began in cities where industry moved away. In cities where industry was located in the city center due to the city's manufacturing-focused character, abandoned industrial areas began to transform due to the need for new urban areas. Former industrial areas are the "potential new functional areas" for cities that strive to keep pace with globalization. Since the Ottoman Empire, Istanbul has been a center where industrial facilities were established. However, industrial facilities in the city center have been decentralized since 1970s due to various issues, and these industrial areas have gone under transformation. Since 1970s, due to its advantageous transportation, the vicinity of TEM and E-5 highways was one of the popular destinations for industrial facilities that left the city center. The Basin Ekspres Route, built in 1980s to connect TEM and E-5, caused rapid landuse changes in the area. The purpose of this study is to investigate the development and transformation of industry along the Basin Ekspres Route and the dynamics behind these processes. The development and transformation of industry along the route was examined in 5 periods (namely before 1980, between 1980-1990, between 1990-2000, between 2000-2010 and after 2010) by using base maps. In addition, the dynamics behind these processes were revealed with help of the findings collected from primary and secondary sources. According to the findings of the study, industrialization in the area began in 1970s and gained momentum after 1980s. Over time, the route remained in the center of the city, and the population in its vicinity increased; thus, in 2000s, the decentralization of industry in the area was initiated with various master plans and numerous residential, office and hotel projects were implemented in this region. On the other hand, the operation of non-polluting industrial activities are allowed in some areas of the Bagcilar District, which lies on the east of the route. Thus, both the demand and the potential for production still remain in the area. In this respect, the Basin Ekspres Route and its surroundings have the appearance of both an industrial and a post-industrial city.
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