Comparative Performance Analysis of Support Vector Regression and Artificial Neural Network for Prediction of Municipal Solid Waste Generation
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CitationJassim, M. S., Coskuner, G., & Zontul, M. (2021). Comparative performance analysis of support vector regression and artificial neural network for prediction of municipal solid waste generation. Waste Management & Research, 0734242X211008526.
The evolution of machine learning (ML) algorithms provides researchers and engineers with state-of-the-art tools to dynamically model complex relationships. The design and operation of municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems require accurate estimation of generation rates. In this study, we applied rapid, non-linear and non-parametric data driven ML algorithms independently, multi-layer perceptron artificial neural network (MLP-ANN) and support vector regression (SVR) models to predict annual MSW generation rates in Bahrain. Models were trained and tested with MSW generation data for period of 1997-2019. The population, gross domestic product, annual tourist numbers, annual electricity consumption and total annual CO2 emissions were selected as explanatory variables and incorporated into developed models. The zero score normalization (ZSN) and minimum maximum normalization (MMN) methods were utilized to improve the quality of data and subsequently enhances the performance of ML algorithms. Statistical metrics were employed to discriminate performance of MLP-ANN and SVR models. The linear, polynomial, radial basis function (RBF) and sigmoid kernel functions were investigated to find the optimal SVR model. Results showed that RBF-SVR model with R-2 value of 0.97% and 4.82% and absolute forecasting error (AFE) for the period of 2008 and 2019 exhibits superior prediction and robustness in comparison to MLP-ANN. The efficacy of MLP-ANN model was also reasonably successful with R-2 value of 0.94. It was shown that MMN pre-processing generated optimal MLP-ANN model while ZSN pre-processing produced optimal RBF-SVR model. This work also highlights the importance of application of ML modelling approaches to plan and implement their roadmap for waste management systems by policymakers.