A Review of Functional Characterization of Single Amino Acid Change Mutations in HNF Transcription Factors in MODY Pathogenesis
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CitationÇubuk, H., & Çapan, Ö. Y. (2021). A Review of Functional Characterization of Single Amino Acid Change Mutations in HNF Transcription Factors in MODY Pathogenesis. The Protein Journal, 348-360.
Mutations in HNF transcription factor genes cause the most common subtypes of maturity-onset of diabetes of youth (MODY), a monogenic form of diabetes mellitus. Mutations in the HNF1-alpha, HNF4-alpha, and HNF1-beta genes are primarily considered as the cause of MODY3, MODY1, and MODY5 subtypes, respectively. Although patients with different subtypes display similar symptoms, they may develop distinct diabetes-related complications and require different treatments depending on the type of the mutation. Genetic analysis of MODY patients revealed more than 400 missense/nonsense mutations in HNF1-alpha, HNF4-alpha, and HNF1-beta genes, however only a small portion of them are functionally characterized. Evaluation of nonsense mutations are more direct as they lead to premature stop codons and mostly in mRNA decay or nonfunctional truncated proteins. However, interpretation of the single amino acid change (missense) mutation is not such definite, as effect of the variant may vary depending on the location and also the substituted amino acid. Mutations with benign effect on the protein function may not be the pathologic variant and further genetic testing may be required. Here, we discuss the functional characterization analysis of single amino acid change mutations identified in HNF1-alpha, HNF4-alpha, and HNF1-beta genes and evaluate their roles in MODY pathogenesis. This review will contribute to comprehend HNF nuclear family-related molecular mechanisms and to develop more accurate diagnosis and treatment based on correct evaluation of pathologic effects of the variants.