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dc.contributor.authorFahmy, Nouran M.
dc.contributor.authorFayez, Shaimaa
dc.contributor.authorUba, Abdullahi Ibrahim
dc.contributor.authorShariati, Mohammad Ali
dc.contributor.authorAljohani, Abdullah S. M.
dc.contributor.authorEl-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M.
dc.contributor.authorBatiha, Gaber El-Saber
dc.contributor.authorEldahshan, Omayma A.
dc.contributor.authorSingab, Abdel Nasser
dc.contributor.authorZengin, Gokhan
dc.identifier.citationFahmy, N. M., Fayez, S., Uba, A. I., Shariati, M. A., Aljohani, A. S., El-Ashmawy, I. M., ... & Zengin, G. (2023). Comparative GC-MS Analysis of Fresh and Dried Curcuma Essential Oils with Insights into Their Antioxidant and Enzyme Inhibitory Activities. Plants, 12(9), 1785.en_US
dc.description.abstractSpecies belonging to the Zingiberaceae family are of high nutritional, industrial, and medicinal values. In this study, we investigated the effect of processing steps (fresh vs. dried milled rhizomes) and extraction methodologies (hydrodistillation vs. hexane extraction) of curcuma essential oil on its chemical content (using GC-MS analysis), its antioxidant behavior (using in vitro assays such as DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP, phosphomolybdenum, and metal chelation), and its enzyme inhibitory activities (on tyrosinase, acetylcholinesterase, butylcholinesterase, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase) supported by multivariate analysis, in silico studies, and molecular dynamics. The GC-MS investigations revealed a high degree of similarity in the chemical profile of fresh hydrodistilled and hexane-extracted essential oils with tumerone and curlone being the major metabolites. The extraction techniques affected the concentrations of other minor constituents such as terpinolene, caryophylla-4(12), 8(13)-dien-5α-ol, and neo-intermedeol, which were almost exclusively detected in the hydrodistilled fresh essential oil; however, zingiberene and β-sesquiphellandrene were predominant in the hexane-extracted fresh essential oil. In the dried curcuma rhizomes, tumerone and curlone contents were significantly reduced, with the former being detected only in the hydrodistilled essential oil while the latter was doubly concentrated in the hexane-derived oil. Constituents such as D-limonene and caryophyllene oxide represented ca. 29% of the dried hydrodistilled essential oil, while ar-turmerone was detected only in the dried hydrodistilled and hexane-extracted essential oils, representing ca. 16% and 26% of the essential oil composition, respectively. These variations in the essential oil chemical content have subsequently affected its antioxidant properties and enzyme inhibitory activities. In silico investigations showed that hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding were the characteristic binding modes of the bioactive metabolites to their respective targets. Molecular dynamics revealed the stability of the ligand-target complex over time. From the current study we conclude that fresh hexane-extracted essential oil showed the best radical scavenging properties, and fresh rhizomes in general display better enzyme inhibitory activity regardless of the extraction technique. © 2023 by the authors.en_US
dc.subjectEnzyme Inhibitionen_US
dc.subjectFresh vs. Drieden_US
dc.subjectMolecular Dynamicsen_US
dc.subjectMultivariate Analysisen_US
dc.subjectTurmeric Essential Oilen_US
dc.titleComparative GC-MS Analysis of Fresh and Dried Curcuma Essential Oils with Insights into Their Antioxidant and Enzyme Inhibitory Activitiesen_US
dc.departmentFen-Edebiyat Fakültesi, Moleküler Biyoloji ve Genetik Bölümüen_US
dc.relation.publicationcategoryMakale - Uluslararası Hakemli Dergi - Kurum Öğretim Elemanıen_US
dc.institutionauthorUba, Abdullahi Ibrahim

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